Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es



Thrombophlebitis und Kopfschmerzen Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es

Superficial thrombophlebitis is inflammation of a vein just under the skin, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, usually in the leg. A small blood clot also commonly forms in the vein, but is usually not serious.

The condition usually settles and goes within weeks. Treatments can ease pain or discomfort. Superficial thrombophlebitis is different to, and much less serious than, deep vein thrombosis DVT. However, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, in a Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es number of cases, complications can occur with superficial thrombophlebitis, including extension of the blood clot further up the vein.

If the clot extends to where the superficial and deep, larger veins join, a DVT can develop. A vein is a blood vessel that takes blood towards the heart.

If a vein becomes inflamed, a blood clot commonly forms inside the inflamed portion, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es. So, the term thrombophlebitis is used to mean an inflamed vein, with or without a small blood clot inside the vein, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es. Thrombophlebitis is commonly just called phlebitis.

The superficial veins are the ones that you can often see Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es feel just under the skin. Most bouts of superficial thrombophlebitis occur in a leg vein. However, any superficial vein can be affected. A typical site is in a varicose vein in a leg. Varicose veins are common, particularly Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es pregnant women.

Superficial thrombophlebitis is not usually serious but complications can sometimes occur see below. The deep veins are larger, pass through was Medizin Behandlung von Krampfadern muscles in your arms and legs and Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es cannot see or feel them, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es.

Some people get confused between superficial thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis DVT. They are quite different. A DVT is more serious. See separate leaflet called Deep Vein Thrombosis for more detail.

Many cases occur for no apparent reason. A slight Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es to the vein may trigger the inflammation in some cases. There are a number of risk factors that make it more likely for inflammation to develop in a vein:. Swelling, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, redness and tenderness along a part of the vein are the usual symptoms.

You may develop Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es high temperature fever. If a blood clot develops inside the Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es part of the vein, the vein may then feel hard or knobbly. The blood clot is usually of little concern, as it is small. There are other veins which carry the blood and bypass the blocked vein. When the inflammation settles, a persistent darker area of skin hyperpigmentation may remain over the affected vein. A small firm lump may also persist below the skin.

This may be tender to the touch for some time. Your doctor is usually able to diagnose superficial thrombophlebitis by talking to you and examining the affected area. Investigations are not usually needed, especially if you have one of the risk factors for superficial thrombophlebitis see above. However, if your doctor is concerned that you may have a DVT see belowthey may advise that you have some tests to exclude this.

This usually means a special ultrasound scan of the affected area to look for any clots in the deep veins. If you have recurrent bouts of thrombophlebitis, especially if you have no real risk factors for superficial thrombophlebitis, your doctor may suggest some tests to check that you do not have any problems with the clotting of your blood.

They may also suggest other tests to look for more rare causes of recurrent superficial thrombophlebitis see below. Most bouts of superficial thrombophlebitis last for weeks. If they are associated oberflächlicher Thrombophlebitis Oberschenkel varicose veins, they are likely to return recur.

No treatment may be needed if the symptoms are mild. One or more of the following treatments may be advised, depending on your symptoms and the severity of the condition:.

If your doctor feels that you may have a DVT or be at high risk of developing one, they may suggest that you Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es referred either to the hospital or to a special DVT clinic. This will enable you to have any investigations or treatment necessary see above. Sometimes, prophylactic just in case treatment may be given to people who have superficial thrombophlebitis and may be at high risk of developing a DVT.

This involves injection of a medicine to thin the blood. The inflammation and pain usually settle within a few weeks. Most people make a full recovery. The possible complications listed below are uncommon. They are listed, however, to give guidance on what to look out for. See a doctor as soon as possible if you suspect that a complication is developing.

Sometimes the affected vein becomes infected. The pain may then become worse and the redness spreads. You are likely to feel generally unwell. Infection is more Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es in someone who has had a drip inserted for a long period, in people who abuse 'street drugs' or in people with a weakened immune system. Antibiotics are needed to treat the infection. If the infection is severe, you may need to be admitted to hospital for antibiotics given directly into a vein.

Rarely, infection in a vein becomes severe and may spread to other areas of the body. In some cases, the blood clot can extend further up the vein. If the clot extends to where the superficial and deep veins join, a DVT can develop. This is more likely if the superficial thrombophlebitis is in the upper thigh or the groin, near to where the superficial veins and the deep veins of the leg meet.

There is a similar meeting point of superficial and deep veins at the crease behind the knee, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es. It is also more likely to occur:. When a DVT leads to thrombophlebitis, there is an increased risk of developing further Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es and possibly clots on the lung pulmonary embolism. It is common for people with varicose veins to have repeated recurrent bouts of superficial thrombophlebitis.

However, for a small number of people this may be the first sign of a more serious condition. For example, cancer or a rare condition called polyarteritis nodosa in which there is patchy inflammation of the walls of the arteries. This is more likely if the bouts occur at different sites, or in different veins in someone without varicose veins. Tests may be advised if there is no obvious explanation for recurring bouts of superficial thrombophlebitis.

Did you find this information useful? Cochrane Database Syst Rev. I had gotten sick beginning of marchstarted with shortness of breath, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, then slowly started progressing, mind you at this time i was smoking meth never injected My symptoms from march up This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions.

Patient Platform Limited has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. For details see our conditions. This website uses cookies. By continuing to use this site you are agreeing to its use of cookies, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es. Health Information A-Z Our index of medical information authored by professionals Community Join the discussion in our forums Medicine directory Drug treatments, dosage instructions and side effects Medical Professionals Information for medical professionals Symptom Checker Assess your symptoms online with our free symptom checker.

In this article arrow-down What is thrombophlebitis? Superficial Thrombophlebitis In this article What is thrombophlebitis? What is superficial thrombophlebitis? What causes superficial thrombophlebitis? What are the symptoms of superficial thrombophlebitis? Do I need any investigations?

What is the treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis? Are there any complications from superficial thrombophlebitis? Phlebitis means inflammation of a vein. Thrombo sis means a blood clot in a vein. Why not subcribe to the newsletter? We would love to hear your feedback! Subscribe to our newsletter. Further reading and references.

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Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es

May 15, Author: See Etiology and Workup. Although superficial thrombophlebitis usually occurs in the lower extremities, it also has been described in the penis and the breast Mondor disease. Superficial thrombophlebitis can also develop anywhere that medical interventions occur, such as in the arm or neck external Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es vein when intravenous IV catheters are used.

See Etiology, Presentation, and Workup. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the superficial venous system receive little attention in medical and surgical textbooks.

However, thrombophlebitis is encountered frequently and, although it is usually a benign, self-limiting disease, it can be recurrent and Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es persistent, at times causing significant incapacitation. See Epidemiology and Prognosis. When affecting the great saphenous vein also referred to as the greater or long saphenous veinThrombophlebitis Thrombose es, thrombophlebitis will sometimes progress into the deep venous system.

Damage to deep venous valves leads to chronic deep venous insufficiency often referred to as postphlebitic syndromeThrombophlebitis Thrombose es, as well as to recurrent pulmonary embolism PE and an increased risk of death.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can occur spontaneously, especially in the lower extremities in the great saphenous vein, or as a complication of medical or surgical interventions. Although the etiology is frequently obscure, superficial venous thrombosis is most often associated with one of the components of the Virchow triad; ie, intimal damage which can result from trauma, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, infection, or inflammationstasis or turbulent flow, or changes in Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es constituents presumably causing increased coagulability.

In each type of superficial thrombophlebitis, the condition presents as redness Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es tenderness along the course of the vein, usually accompanied by swelling. Bleeding also can occur at the site of a varicose vein. Although unusual, superficial thrombophlebitis may occur in the lesser saphenous vein, which empties into the popliteal vein.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can also occur in the external jugular vein, if it has been used for an infusion site, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es. Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities usually occurs at infusion sites or sites of trauma. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a clinical diagnosis in which the clinician identifies tender and inflamed superficial veins. However, ruling out DVT in the clinical setting is difficult; further testing is often required to evaluate for this condition.

See Presentation and Workup. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis is aimed at patient comfort and at preventing superficial phlebitis from involving the deep veins. See Treatment and Medication. Superficial phlebitis with infection, such as phlebitis originating at an IV catheter site, is referred to as septic thrombophlebitisa clinical entity requiring diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that are different from those applied to sterile phlebitis.

Microscopic thrombosis is a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis. Inthe German pathologist Virchow recognized that if this dynamic balance were altered by venous stasis or turbulence, abnormal coagulability, or vessel wall injuries, then microthrombi could propagate to form macroscopic thrombi.

In the absence of a triggering event, neither venous stasis nor abnormal coagulability alone causes clinically important thrombosis, but vascular endothelial injury does reliably result in thrombus formation. The initiating injury triggers an inflammatory response that results in immediate platelet adhesion at the injury site.

Further platelet aggregation is mediated by thromboxane A2 TxA2 and by thrombin, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es. A more detailed visual of the coagulation pathway can be seen in the image below. Platelet aggregation due to TxA2 is inhibited irreversibly by aspirin and reversibly by other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs ; thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, on the other hand, is not affected by NSAIDs, including aspirin. This is why aspirin and Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es NSAIDs are somewhat effective in preventing arterial thrombosis, where platelet aggregation is mediated via TxA2, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, as seen in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, but are not very effective in preventing venous thrombophlebitis, where it is believed that clot formation is more of a result of thrombin activation.

The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, DVT, and PE. Some common risk markers include recent surgery or pregnancy, prolonged immobilization, and underlying malignancy. Phlebitis also occurs in diseases associated with vasculitis, such as polyarteritis nodosa periarteritis nodosa and Buerger disease thromboangiitis obliterans, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es.

The increased likelihood of developing thrombophlebitis occurs through Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es of pregnancy and for approximately 6 weeks after delivery, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es. This is partly due to increased platelet stickiness and partly due to reduced fibrinolytic activity. The association between pregnancy and thrombophlebitis is of particular concern to women who carry the factor V Leiden Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es prothrombin Ca gene, because they already have Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es predisposition to clotting, which would also be exacerbated by pregnancy.

High-dose estrogen therapy is another risk factor, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es. Case-controlled and cohort studies based on clinical signs and symptoms of thrombosis suggest that by taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives, a woman may increase her risk of thrombosis by a factor of times, though the absolute risk Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es low. Newer low-dose oral contraceptives are associated with a much lower venozol Gel Krampf of thrombophlebitis, though the absolute risk has not been well quantified.

Superficial venous thrombosis following an injury usually occurs in an extremity, manifesting as a tender cord along the course of a vein juxtaposing the area of trauma.

Ecchymosis may be present early in the disease, indicating extravasation of blood associated with Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es to the vein; this may turn to brownish pigmentation over the vein as Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es inflammation resolves. Thrombophlebitis frequently occurs at the site of an IV infusion and Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es the result of irritating drugs, hypertonic solutions, or the intraluminal catheter or cannula itself.

This is by far the most common type of thrombophlebitis encountered. Usually, redness and pain signal Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es presence while the infusion is being given, but thrombosis may manifest as a small lump days or weeks after the infusion apparatus has been removed.

It may take months to completely resolve. The features of iatrogenic form of traumatic chemical phlebitis may be deliberately produced by sclerotherapy during the treatment of varicose veins.

Superficial thrombophlebitis frequently occurs in varicose veins. It may extend up and down the saphenous vein or may remain confined to a cluster of tributary varicosities away from the main saphenous vein. Although thrombophlebitis may follow trauma to a Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, it often occurs in varicose veins without an antecedent cause.

Thrombophlebitis in a varicose vein develops as a tender, hard knot and is frequently surrounded by erythema. At times, bleeding may occur as the reaction extends through the vein wall. It frequently is observed in varicose veins surrounding venous stasis ulcers, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es.

Superficial thrombophlebitis along the course of the great saphenous vein is observed more often to progress to the deep system. Infection-related thrombophlebitis is associated with several different conditions, including a serious complication of intravascular cannulation and can be suspected in patients who have persistent bacteremia in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

It also frequently is associated with septicemia. InDeTakats suggested that dormant infection in varicose veins was a factor in the development of thrombophlebitis occurring following operations or after injection treatments, trauma, or exposure to radiation therapy. Altemeier et al Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es that the presence of L-forms and other atypical bacterial forms in the blood may play an important etiologic role in the disease and recommended administration of tetracycline.

Jadioux described migratory thrombophlebitis inThrombophlebitis Thrombose es, determining it to be an entity characterized by repeated thromboses developing in superficial veins at varying sites but occurring most commonly in the lower extremity. Although numerous etiologic factors have been proposed for this condition, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, none have been confirmed.

The association of carcinoma with migratory thrombophlebitis was first reported by Trousseau, in Sproul noted migratory thrombophlebitis to be especially prevalent with carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas. Mondor disease is a rare condition. Thrombophlebitis is usually located in the anterolateral aspect of the upper portion of the breast or in the region extending from the lower portion of the breast across the submammary fold toward the costal margin and the epigastrium.

A characteristic finding is a tender, cordlike structure that may be best demonstrated by tensing the skin via elevation of the arm. The cause of Mondor disease is unknown, but a search for malignancy is indicated. Mondor disease is more likely to occur after breast surgery, with the use of oral contraceptives, and with protein C deficiency.

Thrombophlebitis of the dorsal vein of the penis, generally caused by trauma or repetitive injury, is also referred to as Mondor disease. In the author's experience, superficial thrombophlebitis most frequently occurs in the age group ranging from young adulthood to middle age. However, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es et al reported that a common risk factor is age older than 60 years, though fewer complications occur in this age group.

As previously Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, pregnancy, puerperium, and high-dose estrogen Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es are recognized risk factors for phlebitis. However, there are no intrinsic, sex-linked risks for the disease. The prognosis in superficial thrombophlebitis is usually good. Superficial phlebitis is rarely associated with PE, although it can occur, particularly Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es the process extends into a deep vein.

However, individuals with superficial venous thrombosis do not seem to have a great tendency to develop DVT. In contrast, patients with DVT are frequently found to have superficial venous thrombosis. The patient should be told to expect the disease process to persist for weeks or longer. If it occurs in the lower extremity in association with varicose veins, it has a high likelihood of recurrence unless excision is performed. Because thrombophlebitis tends to recur if the vein has not been excised, instructing the patient in ways to prevent stasis in the vein is usually advisable.

The use of elastic stockings may be indicated, especially if the patient plans to stand in an upright position for long periods. Slight elevation of the foot of the bed, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es, avoidance of long periods of standing in an upright position, and avoidance of prolonged inactivity is recommended, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose es.

An unexpectedly high rate of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh. The veins in thromboangiitis obliterans: With particular reference to arteriovenous anastomosis as a cure for the condition. Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. University of Nagoya Press; Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Vasculopathy related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A review of the literature.

Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and thrombosis. Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha. Am J Emerg Med. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Am J Med Sci. Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis.

Nazir SS, Khan M. Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis Mondor's Disease:


How superficial thrombophlebitis develops

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